Fire safety problems and Countermeasures of underground buildings

二十一世纪,随着城市化进程不断加快,土地资源日渐短缺,城市建设者把目光纷纷转向地下空间的开发上,综合开发地下空间将是今后城市发展的一大特色。地下建筑由于其功能复杂,通风采光排烟差,人员疏散和火灾扑救难度大等特点,决定了其一旦失火,容易导致人员和财产的大量损失。因此,了解地下建筑的火灾特点,提出有效的火宅防止措施,可以有效地预防和控制建筑火灾事故的发生,对地下建筑的消防工作具有重要意义。
一、地下建筑概述
地下建筑主要包括:
(1)住宅。
(2)购物中心。
(3)地下交通设施及停车场。
(4)其他用途。如地下健身场馆、办公、储藏和生产空间等。
二、地下建筑火灾特点
目前,地下建筑火灾仍是世界上各类火灾中最难扑救的火灾之一。如法国与意大利之间的勃朗峰隧道、英国君王十字地铁车站、四川梨子园隧道等等。这些大规模的地下建筑火灾造成的人员伤亡惨重,财产损失极其巨大。经研究发现,地下建筑火灾具有如下主要特点:
(1)火场内部温度高,不完全燃烧产物和有毒气体含量多,阴然火势隐蔽,易引起复燃。
由于地下建筑是通过挖掘的方法而获得建筑空间的,构筑物的外部由岩石、土坡包围着,只有内部空间,不存在外部空间,不像地面建筑有外门、窗与大气相通,地下建筑只有与地面连接的通道才有出入口因此,地下建筑密封性好,火灾后大量物质的燃烧速度与燃烧的充分性受到影响,造成燃烧速度慢、阴燃时间长、产生浓烟和大量有毒气体,同时蓄热温度随之升高,产生高热烟气流。而当某一阴燃部位突然同外部空气形成对流时,火势又会迅速复燃,重新形成燃烧,给在场扑救人员造成极大的危险。
(2)内部格局复杂,出入通道少,导向标识不易发现。
多数地下商城、娱乐场所内部结构复杂,有的互相贯通,顾客经常摸不清方向。特别是环形地下商城,给顾客造成的方向性模糊程度更为严重。其次,此类场所安全出入通道数量少,尽管国家《人民防空工程设计防火规范》对地下建筑的安全疏散各项指标均有明确规定,但从实际情况看,经验收后使用单位擅自改建的地下室很多都达不到这一标准。
(3)部分场所人员流量大,安全疏散困难。
据调查,在某市几个大型的商业中心或公共聚集场所中,双休日及节假日地下室内的日客流量可达1万-4万人次在这些人员中,老人、妇女、儿童占多数,他们的特点是盲从心理强、方向性差、易于惊恐慌乱,同时缺少消防安全知识和自我保护能力,危急情况下急于逃生,互相拥挤,极易堵塞疏散通道,容易引发群死群伤的火灾事故。
(4)贮存物品种类复杂、数量大。
很多地下购物中心、商品城、娱乐广场、停车场、大型仓库等行业,地下建筑不但使用面积大,而且贮存的物资种类杂、数量大,给防火灭火工作造成极大的困难有的地下商品批发市场,平均火灾荷载密度约为100kg/ m²~300kg/ m²,如发生火灾在得不到充足的空气情况下,燃烧时间将会持续6h-18h,是地面同样火灾荷载燃烧时间的3倍。
(5)内部纵深大,层数多,灭火战斗困难。
凡大型地下商城、汽车库,其建筑都有较大的长度,两个安全出入口中间距离一般都有50余米,火灾中战斗人员如从一点向内进攻,受高温、浓烟和光照度的影响很难接近火点特别是对地下二层的火灾扑救,因其复杂程度大于一层,其难度更大,使灭火行动受到更多限制。其次,消防部队目前配备的装备器材性能指标,不能满足地下建筑火灾的扑救需求。一般无线通信器材在地下建筑内发挥不了作用,只能依靠通信人员来实施信息联络。从时间上、质量上都无法保证命令的及时性和有效性。目前消防部队装备的正压式空气呼吸器大多数为6.8L和12L的容量,设计时间分别为25min和45min左右,在有限时间内,很难对纵深较大区域内的火势进行有效打击。
(6)地下消防控制中心易受烟气和火势威胁固定消防设施易损,实施内攻所需要的技术装备与人员量大。
一般大型地下商业街中设置的消防控制中心,多数与营业区域相连通,而且只有个别通道,一旦被烟火封锁,很容易使指挥与控制工作中断,失去应有的作用。另外,初起火势一旦控制不住,短时间内凶猛的火势和长时间的高温,极易使内部固定消防设施受到损坏。例如防火卷帘变形、消火栓水带烧毁、喷淋系统失灵等,灭火工作只能依靠消防部队自身的人员与技术装备力量。对直线深度大的、烟雾浓、温度高、情况不明的燃烧区域,就需要出多支水枪、启动排烟机或喷射高倍数泡沫进行区域隔断,才能控制火势的发展和逐步围歼。

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三、解决地下建筑消防问题的措施
针对地下建筑具有的以上火灾特点,为防止地下建筑发生火灾并造成重要的经济和人员损失,我们需要做好消防监督管理源头审批把关工作,杜绝 “胎里生”火灾隐患。根据《建筑设计防火规范》(GB50016-2014)、《建筑内部装修设计防火规范》(GB50222-95)以及其他法律法规的有关规定,严把地下建筑、内部装修的消防审查工作。同时,地下建筑的消防监督管理应本着消除火灾隐患的目标,做好以下几个方面:
(1)合理布置安全出口位置、数量、宽度,确保安全疏散及灭火救援。
地下建筑发生火灾时,人员的疏散是极其重要的,这是减少人员伤亡的保证,同时也是灭火作战的需要。设计单位应严格按照规范及国家的有关法律法规的要求,合理划分防火分区,合理设计安全出口的位置,根据不同使用功能,适当增加疏散宽度,缩短疏散距离,有时还要考虑增设疏散诱导广播等。
(2)严禁使用易燃装修材料,严格控制可燃材料的使用。
地下建筑在装修过程中应严格按照《建筑内部装修设计防火规范》(GB50222-95)的要求,并应从严要求,降低在火灾发生时能减少有毒有害气体的产生。
(3)规范电气线路的安装,严把消防验收关。

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电气火灾在近年一直是造成火灾的主要因素,因此地下建筑应该严格按照国家和有关行业的规定进行电气线路的设计和安装。特别是电气线路应穿金属管,并做防火处理,减轻在火灾中因电气线路绝缘材料燃烧而导致火灾蔓延和释放有毒有害气体。
(4)消防设施维护保养与日常消防巡查都应重在平时。
近年来的一些火灾表明,由于消防设备设施平时维护保养不利,同时重经营轻防范,导致消防设施不能完好有效地使用,是造成火灾初期没有能够及时扑灭的重要原因。因此在地下建筑建设过程中,应该严格按照国家的有关消防规范要求进行消防设施的设计和施工。同时,如果地下建筑是作为商场用途,其柜台、货架、摊位以及装饰性摆设应严格按照有关规定进行放置,严禁设置在公共疏散区域,严禁阻挡和妨碍消防设施的使用。
(5)适当增设安全疏散指示标志、应急照明等消防产品。
这两种装置对于地下建筑是极其重要的逃生保证装置。因此在设计和安装时,严禁其他设施阻挡其发挥作用。同时由于烟气是上行的,因此地下建筑安全疏散指示标志的设计安装应特别加以重视,也可以考虑增加设置地面抗踩踏的带电安全疏散指示标志。
(6)加强单位“四个能力”建设和防火常识的宣传力度。
对于地下建筑来说,宣传教育工作更加艰巨,因此应该加大防火自救的宣传力度,不仅使人们知道如何自防自救,同时也应该使其知道如何逃生。对于地下建筑,消防宣传的重点有以下几个方面:
① 逃生路线。应该在地下建筑的每个进出口设置明显的逃生路线图,使进入的每个人有一个明确的认识。
② 逃生方式。在地下建筑中设置逃生方法的告示牌,告知每个人员如何逃生。同时,在有条件的情况下准备一些逃生的工具。
③ 全员消防教育培训。加强“四个能力”建设,包括员工的岗前培训,灭火设施功能及使用的培训等,达到一旦火灾发生,业主应及时准确报警,组织疏散自救,使火灾损失减少到最低。
(7)严格落实消防监督管理工作,强化微型消防站实战能力。
各级消防机构应加强对地下建筑物业管理单位的日常监督指导,要求单位按照标准完善制度、强化责任,以“救早、灭小和扑救初起火灾”为目标,依托单位消防队伍,加强微型消防站的力量配备,积极开展日常防火巡查和初起火灾扑救等火灾防控工作。
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In twenty-first Century, along with the accelerating process of city, land resources shortage, the development of City builders eyes have turned to underground space on the comprehensive development of underground space will be a major feature of the city development in the future. Because of its complex functions, poor ventilation, lighting, smoke evacuation, fire evacuation and fire fighting, and so on, the underground buildings have decided that once it is on fire, it will easily lead to the loss of personnel and property. Therefore, it is of great significance to understand the fire characteristics of underground buildings and put forward effective measures to prevent and control the occurrence of fire accidents.
An overview of underground buildings
Underground structures mainly include:
(1) residential.
(2) shopping centre.
(3) underground traffic facilities and parking lot.
(4) other uses. Such as underground gym, office, storage and production space.
Two, underground building fire characteristics
At present, the underground fire is still one of the most difficult fire fighting in the world. Such as the Mont Blanc tunnel between France and Italy, the British King’s Cross subway station, Sichuan pear garden tunnel etc.. These large-scale underground fire caused heavy casualties and huge property losses. It is found that the underground fire has the following characteristics:
(1) the internal temperature of the fire, incomplete combustion products and toxic gas content, Yin Yin fire hidden, easy to cause resurgence.
Because the underground building is obtained through building space mining method, external structures surrounded by rocks, soil, only the internal space, there is no external space, unlike the ground building external doors and windows with the atmosphere, the underground building is only connected to the ground with the channel entrance is therefore well sealed underground buildings after the fire, burning speed mass and sufficient combustion is affected, resulting in slow combustion speed, smoldering time, produce smoke and toxic gases, while the storage temperature increases, heat generated flue gas flow. When a smoldering positions suddenly with external air convection is formed, it will quickly again, re formation of combustion, a great danger to the presence of firefighters.
(2) the internal structure is complex, the access channel is few, and the guide sign is not easy to find.
Most of the underground mall, entertainment complex internal structure, and some of the links, customers often do not understand the direction. In particular, the ring underground mall, the degree of ambiguity caused to the customer is more serious. Secondly, the safety of access number, although the national code for fire protection design of civil air defense works on the underground construction safety evacuation indicators are clearly defined, but from the actual situation, experience after use units unauthorized alteration of the basement are not up to the standard.
(3) the flow of personnel in some places is large, the difficulty of safe evacuation.
According to the survey, in a few large commercial center or public gathering places, the weekend and holidays underground indoor daily traffic of up to 10 thousand – 40 thousand people in these people, the elderly, women and children accounted for the majority of their characteristics is to follow the psychological strong, poor direction, easy to panic panic, and lack of fire safety the knowledge and ability of self protection, emergency rush to escape, crowding each other, clogging evacuation routes, easily lead to fire accidents qunsiqunshang.
(4) the storage items are complex and large in quantity.
Many of the underground shopping center, commodity city, entertainment plaza, parking lot, large warehouses and other industries, not only the use of underground construction area, and storage of materials mixed type, large quantity, fire prevention work to cause great difficulties in some underground commodity wholesale market, the average fire load density is about 100kg\/ M – ~300kg\/ – M. In case of fire in the air is not enough, the burning time will continue to 6h 18h, is also the ground fire load burning time of 3 times.
(5) deep inside, many layers, fire fighting difficult.
Where a large shopping mall, underground garage, the building has a larger length, two security entrance middle distance are generally more than 50 meters, the fire fighters such as the inward attack from the point, high temperature, smoke and illumination effect is difficult to close the fire point especially for two underground fire fighting because of its complexity, more than one layer, it is more difficult, the more limited fire fighting operations. Secondly, the fire department is equipped with equipment and performance indicators, can not meet the needs of underground fire fighting. General wireless communication equipment in underground buildings can not play a role, can only rely on communication personnel to implement information communication. From the time, quality can not guarantee the timeliness and effectiveness of the order. The positive pressure air breathing fire forces most 6.8L and 12L capacity, design time were 25min and 45min, in a limited time, it is difficult for the depth of the larger region of the fire strike.
(6) the underground fire control center by smoke and fire threat fixed fire fighting facilities vulnerable, implementation of technical equipment and personnel required a large amount of attack.
The fire control center is generally large underground commercial street, most of the business area communicated, but only the individual channel, once the smoke blocked, it is easy to make the command and control work interruption, lose their effectiveness. In addition, since the beginning of the fire once unable to control, a short period of time the fierce fire and long time of high temperature, easy to make the internal fixed fire facilities damaged. For example, fire shutter, fire hydrant hose deformation burned, sprinkler system failure, fire fighting personnel and technical equipment can only rely on the power of the fire troops. On line depth, smoke concentration, high temperature, unknown combustion zone requires multi gun, start the exhaust fan or a jet of high expansion foam region partition, in order to control the fire development and gradually move.
Three, to solve the problem of underground fire protection measures
According to the characteristics of underground buildings with more fire, to prevent the underground building fire and caused important economic losses and personnel, we need to check the source of approval of fire supervision and management work, eliminate fire hazards in the tire . According to the architectural fire standards (GB50016-2014), code for fire protection design of interior decoration of buildings (GB50222-95) and other relevant provisions of laws and regulations, strict fire review work of underground construction, interior decoration. At the same time, the underground building fire supervision and management should be based on the elimination of fire hazards, the following aspects:
(1) arrange the location, quantity and width of safe exit to ensure safe evacuation and fire fighting.
It is very important for people to evacuate the underground buildings when the fire happens, which is the guarantee to reduce the casualties and the need of fire fighting. Design units should be strictly in accordance with the relevant laws and regulations and the requirements of the national standard, reasonable partition of fireproof, reasonable design of safety exits, according to different use function, appropriate to increase the width of evacuation, shorten the evacuation distance, sometimes even consider adding evacuate broadcast.
(2) prohibit the use of flammable decoration materials, strict control of the use of combustible materials.
In the decoration process of underground buildings should be strictly in accordance with the interior decoration design fire code (GB50222-95) requirements, and should be strictly required to reduce the fire can reduce the generation of toxic and harmful gases.
(3) regulate the installation of electrical lines, fire inspection strictly off.
Electric fire in recent years has been the main cause of the fire, so the underground construction should be strictly in accordance with the provisions of the state and the relevant industry electrical circuit design and installation. Especially the electrical wiring should wear metal pipe, and the fire in the fire, reduce line insulation due to electrical burn and cause fire spread and release of toxic and harmful gases.
(4) fire fighting facilities maintenance and daily fire inspection should focus on peacetime.
Some of the fires in recent years show that the maintenance of fire fighting equipment and facilities usually negative, while operating light weight resulting in fire prevention, facilities can not be used effectively in good condition, which is an important reason for not able to put out the fire. Therefore, in the process of construction of underground buildings, the design and construction of fire protection facilities should be strictly in accordance with the relevant requirements of the national fire code. At the same time, if the underground building is as the mall use counter, shelves, stalls and decorative furnishings should be strictly in accordance with the relevant provisions strictly prohibited in public place, evacuation area, prohibited the use of barrier and prevent fire facilities.
(5) additional safety evacuation signs, emergency lighting and other fire products.
These two devices are extremely important for underground buildings. Therefore, in the design and installation, other facilities are prohibited from blocking its role. At the same time, as the smoke is up, so the design and installation of underground building safety evacuation signs should be paid special attention to, can also be considered to increase the safety of the ground to set off the foot of the evacuation signs.
(6) to strengthen the building of the four abilities and the propaganda of fire prevention knowledge.
For underground buildings, publicity and education work is more arduous, it should increase the publicity of fire protection, not only to make people know how to self rescue, but also should make it know how to escape. For underground buildings, the focus of fire protection has the following aspects:
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Escape route. Should be in each of the underground construction of the import and export set a clear escape route, so that everyone into a clear understanding.
Escape mode. In the underground building to set up a way to escape the bulletin board, to inform everyone how to escape. At the same time, under the conditions of the preparation of some tools to escape.
All fire education and training. To strengthen the four abilities, including staff training, fire-fighting facilities function and training, at once the fire broke out, the owners shall be accurate and timely alarm, the fire evacuation self-help organization, reduce the losses to a minimum.
(7) strictly implement the supervision and management of fire protection, strengthen the actual combat capability of the mini fire station.
Fire control institutions at all levels should strengthen the building of the underground property management unit of the daily supervision units in accordance with the standard requirements, improve the system, strengthen the responsibility to save early and killing and fire fighting since the beginning of as the goal, based on the unit fire team, strengthen fire station equipped with micro power, actively carry out daily fire prevention patrol and the beginning fire fighting and fire prevention and control work.
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不管我们的数据在哪儿,都应该得到适当的保护,事实上也是如此,不能因为有了安全的防火墙就可高枕无忧,边界安全面临挑战,云计算、社交网络、消费电子、移动应用让我们的数据已经而且越来越会变得无处不在。

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