Research on the status quo of occupational safety and health standard system in America

安全生产文摘
经过近百年的发展,美国已经形成了一套能够快速响应不断变化的市场需求和政府职业安全健康监管需要,以及自愿性标准与技术法规协调一致的职业安全健康标准体系。鉴于其安全标准制定的前瞻性及系统性,以及多年运作完善的成熟程度,在西方发达国家中具有典型的代表意义。
1、职业安全健康标准分类
美国职业安全健康标准由自愿性标准和技术法规两部分构成。
1.1自愿性标准
自愿性标准相当于我国的“推荐性标准”,分为国家标准、协会标准和企业标准3个层级:
①国家标准:由政府委托美国国家标准学会组织协调并发布的标准。
②协会标准:由美国机械工程师协会、美国消防协会等各种协会组织感兴趣的生产者、用户、消费者,以及政府和学术界的代表参加,通过协商程序而制定出来的各类标准。
③企业标准:企业按照市场需要和用户要求制定的公司标准。
1.2 技术法规
美国针对健康、安全、环境等方面制定技术法规(包括法规和标准)固,技术法规由政府机构制定并强制执行。技术法规中的安全健康标准相当于我国安全生产强制性标准。本文中的技术法规特指其中的标准部分。
1.3 自愿性标准与技术法规的关系
美国鼓励采用自愿性标准,作为政策执行或从事活动的依据,一旦自愿性标准被联邦政府采纳成为联邦法规,则自愿性标准具有了强制执行的属性。

2、管理机构及管理流程
2.1 美国国家标准学会
ANSI是美国国家标准的管理部门,负责规范标准制定程序和要求、批准标准。标准由经过ANSI认可的标准制定机构制定。国家标准的制定程序团包括:
①认可国家标准制定机构。
②标准制定机构组织一个相关各方可接受的独立代表机构(称为协商一致机构)。
③标准制定机构起草标准草案。
④标准草案列入“标准行动”中以供公众评议,评议期以不少于三十天为限。
⑤协商一致机构对标准草案进行表决,机构成员中至少有三分之二的赞成票时方为通过。
⑥处理公众以及协商一致机构对于标准的异议,并向每一位异议人告知该异议的处理情况和阐述采取该种处理方法的缘由。
⑦对于符合条件的标准由标准审查委员会(BSR)或ANSI标准审核指定机构批准。
⑧发布国家标准,时间不得迟于标准批准后的六个月;
⑨标准制定机构采用定期或连续维护的方式对国家标准进行维护。
2.2 矿山安全健康管理局
矿山山安全健康管理局(MSHA)是美国劳工部下属的政府机构,负责保障矿工的职业安全和健康,并制定和执行矿山相关标准,涉及矿山职业安全健康的技术法规包括煤矿和金属非金属矿山相关标准,载入《联邦联邦法规》(CFR)第30卷矿产资源卷,MSHA每年负责更新。
2.3职业安全健康管理局
职业安全健康管理局(OSHA)是与矿山安全健康管理局同属美国劳工部的政府机构。OSHA负责保障除矿山外的其他行业员工在工作中的安全和健康,并负责制定和执行标准,OSHA制定的职业安全健康技术法规被载入美国联邦法规》第29篇,OSHA每年负责更新。
技术法规的制定流程分为以下几个阶段:
①预研阶段。周期为12-36个月。过程涵盖识别健康或安全危害,确定危害范围,与利益相关方沟通,进行风险评估、技术和经济可行性分析,识别危害控制方法,标准制定所需要的资源,准备技术法规立项文件等多项内容。
②标准开发。时间自12-36个月不等。具体分为形成可行性分析报告、起草技术法规文本、启动联邦制度收集信息、与利益相关方协商、同行业审查、获取所有相关机构和部门的许可、提交行政管理和预算局(OMB)审查和批准。
③出版拟建技术法规。时间为2-3个月。在经历获得出版的批准、计划公开听证会、提交联邦公报发布、向OMB提交初步信息收集请求后向SBA报送拟建技术法规。
④开发和分析技术法规制定记录。规定时限为6-24个月。具体为收集公众评议、举行公众听证会、复查和分析所有的书而评议和证据。
⑤开发最终技术法规。时间跨度为18-36个月。工作包括更新和完成可行性分析报告、起草最终的技术法规、得到所有机构和部门许可,提交给OMB来复查和批准。
⑥出版最终技术法规。出版周期为2-3个月,首先是得到出版的批准,将其提交给联邦公报发表,再提交信息收集要求给OMB,后给SBA发送最终技术法规,提交最终法规给国会和GAO。
⑦标准宣传。宣传时间持续4-12个月。具体的宣传动作包含开发并出版合规指南、培训材料及其解释文字,回应法律行动等相关工作。

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3、标准构成
3.1 国家标准
截至2015年9月,美国已经颁布的现行国家标准共计14642项,其中,职业安全健康国家标准共计1986项。与ICS标准分类方法类似,美国也采用等级分类法对标准进行分类。根据标准的专业划分,分为建筑、机械、电气与电子等24个类别。从类别划分可以看出,美国的职业安全健康标准没有形成单独的类别,而是嵌套在各个行业领域内。
3.2 金属非金属矿山职业安全健康技术法规体系
金属非金属矿山技术法规分为露天和地下两大类,其技术法规分别载入《联邦行政法规》(CFR)第30卷的两个不同章节。
1)露天金属非金属矿山
露天金属非金属矿山职业安全健康技术法规体系由场地控制、火灾预防及控制、空气质量和化学品等17个要素构成。
2)地下金属非金属矿山
地下金属非金属矿山职业安全健康技术法规体系由场地控制、火灾预防及控制、空气质量、化学品限制、辐射和柴油颗粒物等19个要素构成。
与露天金属非金属矿山相比,地下金属非金属矿山的职业安全健康标准增加了通风和金属非金属矿山甲烷安全标准2个要素,将要素“空气质量、物理制剂”增加了“辐射、柴油颗粒物”内容,要素名称修改为“空气质量、辐射、物理制剂和柴油颗粒物”。
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地下金属非金属矿山职业安全健康技术法规构成分为4个大类:第一类标准地而和井下都适用,且与露天矿标准规定相同,约占标准总量70%;第二类是比露天矿增加的标准,只适用于井下,占比约25%;第三类标准是地而和井下都有,只是标准内容不同,约占3%;第四类标准是仅适用于地而,仅占2%。
3)职业安全健康技术法规(非矿山)体系
职业安全健康技术法规(非矿山)体系由行走工作面、疏散路线和应急计划、职业健康和环境控制等13个要素构成。
4、美国职业安全健康标准及标准体系特点
4.1 标准制定机构的准入制
标准制定机构通过ANSI认可和定期审核,具备完成国家标准的条件。资格获取前,机构需提供标准制定程序以及证明遵守这些程序的文件,并声明与利益相关方、其他ANSI认可的标准制定机构以及ANSI配合、协调标准制定过程中的各项活动;机构的认可申请在“标准活动”上刊登,征求各界意见,接受社会监督。ANSI定期对获得认可的标准制定机构进行审核,以确认相关机构是否持续具备标准制定的能力及是否在符合要求的流程下开展工作。
4.2 平等参与的多渠道沟通制约机制
标准制定过程多渠道征求意见,最大程度上使其与国家标准协商一致。具体表现在:一是ANSI规定受到标准直接或重大影响的所有人员均可参与,不得为参与收取不合理的费用;且标准制定流程不受任何利益个人或组织的支配;二是采用项目立项通告系统(PINS)征求意见;三是标准制定机构需将国家标准草案列入ANSI的“标准行动”,以供公众评议,确保标准制定过程的透明度最大化。且制定机构对于提出的异议应作出处理,回避了标准制定过程可能存在的利益影响而产生的非客观倾向;四是协商一致机构投票表决,进一步从最后环节确保了标准制定的独立与公正。
4.3 预研充分
技术法规立项经过充分的预研,反映出开发过程的谨慎,确保技术法规需要和可行。花费12-36个月时间做立项前的各项准备工作,包括识别健康或安全危害,确定危害范围,与利益相关方沟通,进行风险评估、技术可行性分析和经济分析,识别危害控制方法,确定标准制定所需要的资源,准备技术法规立项文件等不一而足。
4.4 技术性与可操作性突出
技术法规重点规范安全技术,所体现出来的标准内容具体、针对性强,如场地控制、火灾预防及控制和爆炸物等,管理的对象及实施层而呈现立体化态势。单项标准范围窄,但内容详细,注重可操作性,如爆炸物储存分为《爆炸材料储存的隔离》、《爆炸材料储存设施的周围区域》、《爆炸材料储存实践》、《爆炸材料储存设施》、《爆炸材料储存设施的地点》、《爆炸物库房要求》和《火药箱》七项标准,从管理对象的所处环境、具体实施及本质安全均有较为详细的涉及,无疑大大提高了标准依据的针对性,也为标准内容的落实提供了有效的客观实际。
(节选自《中国安全生产科学技术》2016.1)
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Safety production Abstracts
After nearly a hundred years of development, the United States has formed a set to be able to respond quickly to changing market demand and government occupation safety and health regulation needs, consistent with the occupation safety and health standards and voluntary standards and technical regulations and coordination. In view of the forward-looking and systematic nature of its safety standards, and the maturity of many years of operation, it has typical representative significance in the western developed countries.
1, occupational safety and health standard classification
The occupational safety and health standards in the United States are made up of two parts: voluntary standards and technical regulations.
1.1 voluntary standards
Voluntary standards are equivalent to the recommended standards, which are divided into 3 levels: national standards, association standards and enterprise standards:
National standards: by the government commissioned by the American national standards institute organization and coordination of the standards issued.
The association standard by the American Society of mechanical engineers, the National Fire Protection Association and other organizations interested in the association of producers, users and consumers, and on behalf of the government and academia to participate, through the consultation process and worked out all kinds of standard.
Enterprise standard: according to the needs of the market and user requirements of the company standards.
1.2 technical regulations
The United States to the health, safety, environment and other aspects of the development of technical regulations (including regulations and standards) solid, technical regulations enacted and enforced by government agencies. The safety and health standards in technical regulations are equivalent to the compulsory standards of safety production in china. The technical regulations in this article refer to the standard part.
信息安全的进步不仅依赖网络安全技术的发展,同时也依赖于成熟的信息安全管理和其它方面的因素。组织并不能通过购买信息安全产品和安全方案解决信息安全的所有问题。
1.3 voluntary standards and technical regulations
The United States encourages the use of voluntary standards as a basis for policy enforcement or activities, and once voluntary standards are adopted by the federal government as federal regulations, voluntary standards are enforceable.
2, management agencies and management processes
American National Standards Institute, 2.1
ANSI is the national standard of the management department, responsible for regulating the standard setting procedures and requirements, approval criteria. Standards developed by the ANSI approved standard setting bodies. Procedures for the formulation of national standards include:
Recognized national standards establishment.
The standard setting body organizes an acceptable independent representative body (called the consensus body).
Draft standard drafting standards.
The draft standards included in the standard for public comment, the comment period of not less than thirty days.
The negotiation mechanism to vote on the draft standard, at least 2\/3 of the votes in the party members through the.
The public and consensus mechanism for standard objection, deal with the situation and inform the objection to every objection and explains the reason to take this kind of processing method.
And to meet the conditions of the standard by the standard review committee (BSR) approval or ANSI standard audit agencies designated.
The release of the national standard, not later than six months after the approval of the standard;
To the standard setting body by regular or continuous maintenance way to maintain the national standard.
2.2 mine safety and Health Administration
The mountain of mine safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is the U.S. Department of labor under the government agencies responsible for the protection of miners’ occupation safety and health, and the formulation and implementation of mine related standards, involving the occupation health and safety technical regulations including coal mine and metal and nonmetal mine related standards, loading federal regulations (CFR) volume thirtieth mineral resources volume, MSHA annual update.
2.3 occupational safety and Health Administration
The occupational safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is the government agency of the U.S. Department of labor with the mine safety and health administration. OSHA responsible for the protection of other industries in addition to mines outside of the staff in the work safety and health, and is responsible for formulating and implementing the standard OSHA formulation of occupation safety and health regulations are enshrined in United States federal regulations article twenty-ninth, OSHA annual update.
The development process of technical regulations is divided into the following stages:
The research stage. Cycle for 12-36 months. The identification process covers health or safety hazards, determine the harm scope, communicate with stakeholder analysis, risk assessment, technical and economic feasibility, identification of damage control methods, the resources needed to set standards, technical regulations for project files and so on.
Standard development. Time ranging from 12-36 months. The formation is divided into the feasibility study report and the draft technical regulations text, collect information, and start the federal system of stakeholder consultation, the same industry review, access to all relevant agencies and departments of administrative licensing, submitted to the office of management and budget (OMB) for examination and approval.
Publishing the proposed technical regulations. Time for 2-3 months. After the publication of the approval of the program, the plan to open the hearing, the Federal Register issued to the OMB to submit preliminary information collection request submitted to the SBA after the proposed technical regulations.
To formulate regulations and records the development and analysis of technology. The prescribed time limit is 6-24 months. Specifically for the collection of public comments, public hearings, review and analysis of all the books and comments and evidence.
The development of the final technical regulations. Time span is 18-36 months. The work includes updating and completing the feasibility analysis report, drafting the final technical regulations, obtaining the approval of all agencies and departments, and submitting them to OMB for review and approval.
The publication of the final technical regulations. The publication cycle is 2-3 months, the first is to be published by the approval, submit it to the Federal Register publication, then submit the information collection requirements to OMB, after SBA to send the final technical regulations, submit the final regulations to Congress and GAO.
The standard of publicity. Publicity lasted 4-12 months. Specific promotional activities include the development and publication of compliance guidelines, training materials and their interpretation of the text, to respond to legal action and other related work.
3, standard composition

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3.1 national standards
As of September 2015, the United States has issued a total of 14642 national standards, including occupational safety and health of a total of 1986 national standards. Similar to the ICS standard classification method, the United States also uses hierarchical classification to classify the standards. According to the standard of professional division, divided into 24 categories: construction, machinery, electrical and electronics. As can be seen from the classification, the United States occupation safety and health standards do not form a separate category, but nested within the various sectors of the industry.
3.2 technical regulations on safety and health of metal and nonmetal mines
The technical regulations of metal and nonmetal mines are divided into two categories: open air and underground, and their technical regulations are respectively divided into the following two chapters of the federal administrative regulations (CFR) of the thirtieth volumes.
1) open metal nonmetal mines

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The technical regulation system of occupational safety and health in open metal nonmetal mines is composed of 17 factors: site control, fire prevention and control, air quality and chemicals.
2) underground metal nonmetal mines
The system of occupational safety and health technical regulations for underground metal and nonmetal mines is composed of 19 factors: site control, fire prevention and control, air quality, chemical restriction, radiation and diesel particulate matter.
Compared with the open metal and nonmetal mines, occupation health and safety standard of underground metal and nonmetal mines to increase ventilation and safety standards of mine methane in metal and non metal elements of 2 elements, air quality and physical preparation increased radiation, diesel particulate matter content, element name changed to air quality, radiation, physical preparation and diesel particulate matter.
Underground metal and nonmetal mine occupation safety and health regulations which are divided into 4 classes: the first class standard ground and underground and open-pit mine are applicable, standard, accounting for about 70% of the total standard; the second is to increase the ratio of open-pit standard, only suitable for underground, accounting for about 25%; third the standard is ground and underground are just the standard of different content, about 3%; fourth class standard is only applicable to land, accounted for only 2%.
(3) occupational safety and health technical regulations
The occupational safety and health technical regulations (non mining) system is composed of 13 elements: walking face, evacuation route and emergency plan, occupational health and environmental control.

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