[market] 5 minutes to interpret the current situation of 4S store management

网络犯罪分子正在寻找新的方法和手段来窃取数据和进行破坏。如何应对呢?
以我国汽车4s店为研究对象。分析了当前汽车4s店的现状和蕴含的危机。从汽车4s店的管理理念、管理模式、人力管理、营销管理、公共关系管理、零配件管理、维修及售后服务管理等方面深入剖析引发汽车4s店目前经营管理问题的原因及影响因素,根据剖析分析结果,结合现代管理理论,从提升4s店管理创新能力、服务质量、内部管理方式等方面提出具体对策和措施,并从如何运用战略管理和营销管理对策措施方面提出建议。

蓝盾杯中原工学院第三届信息安全与网络攻防竞赛圆满收官

一、汽车4s店经营管理现状分析1.1汽车4s店的管理理念现状作为4s店,其销售流程是由售前、售中及售后三个重要环节组成。这三个环节的服务好坏直接影响着4s店经营的状况,所以汽车4s店的管理也高度重视这几个环节,4s店本应是一个管理规范、服务周到、产品一流的现代化企业,但在实践中,由于管理理念存在一定问题,所以在售前、售中及售后这三个环节事实上不同程度存在问题。1)售前服务中,由于不同4s店所经营的品牌不一样,不同4s店的汽车性能及配置不同,专业素质不高的员工对于本店多种汽车相关知识的掌握程度不尽如人意。2)售中服务中,办事效率低下。3)售后服务中,消费者遇到的问题更是比比皆是,用户送入4s店的车维修时间过长,维修后的汽车线路出现漏装,汽车多次返修,搁置用户反馈的车辆异常状况信息,配件供应周期极长等问题。这些问题都严重影响了消费者车辆的日常安全使用。1.2汽车4s店管理(模式)现状汽车4s店长期以来重建设、轻管理的状态被戏称为“硬件偏硬,软件偏软”。一方面,中国的汽车4s店数量众多,规模巨大,硬件设施齐备,其大气的建筑风格和富丽堂皇的装潢,甚至与发达国家相比也不遑多让。其原因在于:1)对于面子工程的重视,漂亮的建筑风格和外观不仅满足了汽车4S店实际需要,也是为了能吸引更多消费者。2)经销权还处于卖方市场,对于厂家来说,众多的经销商都想取得代理权,厂家完全可以从中选择条件较好的经销商作为合作者,经销商为了获取经销权,不惜代价满足厂家的要求。1.3汽车4s店人力资源管理现状员工素质分为专业素质和服务素质。4s店行业在中国发展了数十年,相应的专业人才却依旧处于紧缺状态,在专业素质方面,专业人才和被迫招聘一些勉强达标的“人才”及营销人员素质普遍偏低。据统计,从目前汽车4s店的人才构成来看,品牌专卖店销售管理人员大专以上文化程度占80%,可专业对口不足二成,且受过专业汽车管理营销培训的不到20%,专业人才极度缺乏。1.4汽车4s店的产品营销管理的现状通过对4s店汽车产品的经营模式考察,可以发现不同的经营者对产品存在着不同的认识。大部分4s店为了抢占市场份额,满足汽车厂家销售量的要求,都是把汽车精品作为整车的赠品,以牺牲汽车精品的利润来维护整车统一价格和笼络车主。但在整车销售业绩不佳的情况,4s店也逐步开始重视到产品本身也可以产生利润的认识上来。但是在主观上和客观上,似乎还存在较大偏差。从主观上看,近40%的4s店选择将汽车用品业务部分外包或全部外包,这部分企业并未对产品的经营产生足够的认识,往往为了降低成本,而选择价格战略,但对消费者来说,很容易对4s店的价格产生怀疑,因为其与整车价格本身存在着差异。从客观上看,销售和技术人才的匮乏,是造成汽车精品销售难有起色的重要原因。汽车精品都需要带二次施工服务的(汽车电子、防爆膜等都是如此),由于过去在这方面并没有过多的经验,也没有这方面的人才储备。1.5汽车4s店售后服务的现状在一个完全成熟的国际化的汽车市场中,汽车行业50%以上利润是在服务领域中产生的。但目前4s店售后服务还存在诸多问题:1)战略上的短视我国前几年汽车销售市场上汽车4s店中销售毛利率和毛利总量远高于售后服务的毛利总量,整车销售更加有利可图。2)服务标准的匮乏目前不少4s店管理人员重视眼前利益,不太重视售后服务质量以及服务意识的培养,售后服务员工服务意识淡薄,对各种服务的核心流程执行难以到位,完全了应付厂家的检查和客户的投诉,长此以往,客户的满意度相当之低。当经营管理以多种服务的维度呈现时,其最大的现实作用就是作用于经济效益和社会生活,并与人们普遍的关于销售与售后服务的心理刻度相结合,从而担负起它自身属性所界定的任务和功效。以4s来说,这个汽车供应服务链行业,实际存在的意义,是在从销售到服务的过程中营造关于某一品牌汽车的经营主题,实现从厂商、经销商与客户的意识整合,于是就有了应运而生的关于4s汽车维修行业及其经营的管理分析。二、4s汽车维修行业经营中的主要问题以打造中国汽车行业服务坐标体系理念为己任的4s店,自99年引进我国后,发展迅猛,截止2014年已达到24318家。随着汽车产销服务一体化进程的不断推进,消费者对售后服务意识的不断增强,4s汽车维修方面所出现的一些问题逐渐显现。2.1规模化增长明显高于消费需要尽管投资兴建4s店价格不菲,但增长速度仍以高于消费需要的速度在增长。店面密集聚合所带来的直接后果就是竞争激烈。在激烈的市场竞争格局中,为保证营销链前端的整车销售,经销商不惜财力、人力的投入角逐。但是,投入就意味着成本的增加,为保效益降成本,经营商于是对汽车维修的人员数量及资金一压再压,导致维修质量提升空间缺乏。另外,为增加营业额度,维修人员或是擅自扩大维修范围;或是模糊报价、含混标价,从央视“三一五”晚会投诉中可以看到,有的4s店在维修过程中以次充好,以假乱真,从中非法营利。这些,都引起了消费者的强烈不满。2.2 产业结构调整中主次关系不清晰经济学理论告诉我们,当某个产业链达到高速发展的平台,就要进行合理的产业结构调整。就4s来说,在结构调整中,要将第一产业(汽车制造)的比重下降,第二产业(整车销售)的步伐放缓,并提升服务业比重使其超过第二产业的增长速度,但是从目前4s店的经营策略来看,其产业结构调整中的主次关系并不清晰,服务业比重的增长速度并不明显。三、成因分析3.1 曲解经营理念曲解国外经营理念的现象在我国可谓比比皆是,4S的经营也没有突破这种局限。国外4s商家,其关注点是在下游战略的发展上,产供、销售、服务的比例为2:1:4,可见,维修服务所提供的盈利回报是十分丰厚的。但在我国,商家只是学到了4s的形式,并没有把握其核心和精华。例如,对于不少4s营销商来说,整车出售才是根本目的,而维修服务只不过是整车出售的一种促销手段。在这样经营理念的引导下,4S店整车销售(sale)、零配件(sparepart)、售后服务(service)、信息反馈等(survey)四项功能中售后服务中的汽车维修的发展被曲解,被误读,被忽略是其必然。3.2 垂直化管理的制约由于4s是汽车厂家营销的一种商业模式,决定了其经营管理模式与生产厂家相匹配,相协调一致。许多厂家(包括国外厂家)目前所看重的是如何在中国汽车市场这一块蛋糕上分得一块销售利润而显得急功近利。虽然近年来像一汽大众,上海大众,长安福特等业内众多品牌,已经对汽车维修的经营效能和社会效应日益关注,并陆续推出各级别的服务技能大赛以彰显对服务理念的强化,但并没有形成主流风向标。4S维修经营理念依旧无法摆脱脱胎于汽车厂家的一脉相承,服务项目集中在汽车的一级维护、二级维护、专项修理和大修上,而对汽车装潢、汽车改装、二手车置等业务开展较少。3.3 管理及维修人员素质低下从目前4s店人力资源分配的情况来看,经营商一般把文化程度高、专业能力强的员工安排在销售岗位上,而从事维修的人员无论是文化程度还是专业技能都比较薄弱,尤其是规模较小的门店,其维修人员的招收,更谈不上高标准,严要求,有的甚至连起码的维修理论都不具备。本身技能素质的缺失,再加上职业技能培训跟不上,造成维修人员综合素质普遍较低,无法符合高质量维修要求。四、解决问题的三个策略为解决4s汽车维修行业存在的问题,提升其价值,需要由片面的追求销售利润变为追求对顾客服务的价值意义上来并调整垂直方向的整合策略。1.1重新定义价值链应该承认,在中国汽车市场刚开始形成并逐渐走向蓬勃发展的过程中,4S店基于汽车销售为主营业务的经营理念是符合国情,符合市场客观需求的。但是,随着我国汽车市场需求总量趋于饱和,制造和营销在价值链中的传统作用就变得不那么重要和具有吸引力了。在这种形势下,汽车供销需求的徘徊不前,就将生产、销售、服务这一产业链中维修服务所带来的经济价值变成商家利润的新源头———与汽车营销相比,汽车维修往往具有更大的盈利空间,却要求较少的资产投入,并且最主要的是能够实现商家与顾客的有效链接,而也正是汽车维修所具备的这些优势,令人们对4s价值链的定义重新审视与思考。重新定义价值链,意味着重新衡量4s的利润分布:汽车销售利润不再是主要衡量尺度。毕竟,汽车销售所带来的盈利并不能决定汽车使用和维护所需服务的盈利能力。一个产品口碑的建立,往往是在使用过程中逐渐完成的,而汽车维修行业,就具备了帮助汽车产品树立品牌效应的服务保障能力。重新评估汽车维修行业在4s价值链中的重要性,对于4s在我国汽车市场中的发展,具有持续推动的价值含义,这一点是与从互助网接口服务等下游服务上所获得的盈利,比单纯的销售电脑获得的盈利多得多的道理具有异曲同工之妙。2.2充分利用汽车维修业务的技术优势在我国4s经营中,优质的产品和较大的规模构成了竞争的有力保障。但是,随着我国汽车市场的发展,这种经营模式的优势已经不再明显。在科学技术飞速发展的今天,几大汽车厂商在制造技术和产品功能上的差异微乎其微,而要在成本上永远领先也显然不可能。而且,外包以及随着计算机虚拟技术发展起来的虚拟企业的日益流行,意味着资本密集资产可以通过联盟或合并来实现。同时,随着我国经济的发展,还会有更多的经营资本以4s经营模式涌入到汽车行业市场上来。在这种趋势下,以创新的意识,寻求新的突破就显得意义重大。例如,长期以来,我国4s汽车维修行业受制于垂直式管理,二手车维修业务一直没有得到广泛开展。而一汽.大众奥迪从加强汽车维修技术能力入手,通过技术素质的培养,大范围地拓展二手车维修业务,通过维修项目的开展,抢占了先机,赢得了利润。2.3 调整垂直方向的整合策略在4s行业,销售指标非常重要,为获得更多顾客,厂家或是经销商常以低于其它商家价格实施促销。此举虽有利于客户,但对厂家或经营商来说,并非长远之计,当利润空间被干缩干时,就会无计可施。因此,在中国汽车市场烽烟未起之时,需要4s经营的有识之士未雨绸缪,适时对4s的垂直模式进行战略性调整,以汽车维修服务能够提供汽车产品使用和维护的总体最小成本优势,来取代目前这种侧重于汽车营销的模式,赚取可观的服务利润,以保持立于汽车市场的不败之地。通过上述对4s汽车维修行业经营管理的分析,笔者认为,虽然目前我国4s汽车维修行业经营管理方面还存在着这样或那样的问题,但是对于4s来说,以汽车维修行业的优势来平衡其经营业绩是必然的发展趋势,只有迎难而上,顺势而为,才能赢得更大的发展空间和利润。

中共中央 国务院关于推进防灾减灾救灾体制机制改革的意见

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With China’s automobile 4S shop as the research object. Analysis of the current situation of automobile 4S shop and inherent crisis. From the car 4S shop management concept, management mode, human resource management, marketing management, public relations management, spare parts management, maintenance and customer service service management and other aspects of in-depth analysis of the reasons and influencing factors of the current management problems caused car 4S shop, according to the analysis results, combined with modern management theory, and puts forward the concrete countermeasures and measures from the aspects of enhance the 4S shop management innovation ability, service quality, internal management, and from the advice on how to use strategic management and marketing management countermeasures.
正威中医鲍德华解密拔罐除百病的奥秘

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Status quo of the 4S shop management analysis of the status quo of management concept of 1.1 automobile 4S shop as 4S stores, its sales process is the pre-sale, sale and customer service are three important parts. These three aspects of the service quality directly affects the 4S shop operating conditions, so the car 4S shop management also attaches great importance to these aspects, the 4S shop should be a standard management and thoughtful service products, first-class modern enterprise, but in practice, because the management philosophy exists to a certain problem, so in the pre-sale sale customer service and the three links in fact there are different degrees of problems. 1) the pre-sale service, due to the different 4S shop operated by the brand is not the same, the automobile performance and configuration of different 4S shop, professional quality is not high for the various car shop staff knowledge level is not satisfactory. 2, the sale of services, low efficiency. 3) customer service service, consumers encounter problems is a long time to repair the car meet the eye everywhere, the user into the 4S shop, car maintenance line after leakage, car use multiple repair, user feedback abnormal vehicle condition information, long cycle parts supply problems. These problems have seriously affected the daily safety of consumer vehicles. 1.2 car 4S shop management (mode) of automobile 4S shop long heavy construction, light management state dubbed the hard soft hardware, software. On the one hand, China car 4S shop number, large scale, hardware facilities, the atmosphere of the architectural style and magnificent decoration, even as much as compared with the developed countries. The reasons are: 1) for the face of the importance of the project, beautiful architectural style and appearance not only to meet the actual needs of the automotive 4S shop, but also to attract more consumers. 2) distribution rights is still in a seller’s market, for manufacturers, many dealers want to get the right agent, manufacturers can choose dealers better conditions as partners, dealers in order to obtain the distribution rights, meet the requirements of manufacturers at any cost. 1.3 car 4S shop situation of the human resource management of staff quality into professional quality and service quality. In the development of China industry 4S shop for decades, the corresponding professional talent is still in short supply, professional quality, professional talents and forced to recruit some barely talent and the marketing personnel quality is low. According to statistics, from the current automobile 4S shop personnel composition, store brand sales management staff of tertiary education accounted for more than 80%, but less than 20% professional counterparts, and highly professional automotive marketing management training of less than 20%, the extreme shortage of professionals. Status of product marketing management 1.4 4S shop of the 4S shop through the investigation of the automotive products business model, can be found to recognize different operators of different products exist. Most of the 4S shop in order to seize market share, to meet the requirements of automobile manufacturers sales, automotive products are the vehicle as gifts, automotive products at the expense of profits to maintain uniform price and win over the vehicle owners. But in the vehicle poor sales situation, understanding the 4S shop also gradually began to pay attention to the product itself can also generate profits. But on the subjective and objective, there seems to be a large deviation. From the subjective point of view, nearly 40% of the 4S shop choose to auto supplies business outsourcing all or part of outsourcing, this part of the enterprise does not have enough understanding on the management of the product, often in order to reduce the cost, and the choice of price strategy, but for consumers, it is easy to doubt the 4S shop price, because the price of the vehicle itself and the difference. From an objective point of view, the lack of sales and technical personnel, is an important reason for the difficult to improve the quality of automotive sales. Automotive products need to take two construction services (automotive electronics, explosion-proof film, etc.), because in the past there is no excessive experience in this area, there is no talent reserve in this area. 1.5 car 4S shop customer service service status in a fully fledged international automobile market, the automobile industry for more than 50% of the profit is generated in the service in the field. But now the 4S shop customer service service and there are still many problems: 1) strategic short-sighted China a few years ago the car sales market in the automobile 4S shop sales volume and gross profit margin is much higher than the total customer service service, vehicle sales more profitable. 2) the lack of the standard of service at present many 4S shop managers attach importance to the immediate interests, not pay attention to the training of customer service service quality and customer service staff service consciousness, service consciousness, the core process of service execution is difficult to place, the factory inspection and fully cope with customer complaints, if things go on like this, the customer satisfaction is quite low. When the management service in various dimensions is present, its practical effect is the biggest role in economic and social life, and combined with the common people on the sales and customer service service psychological scale, to undertake the task and function of its own attribute definition. In 4S, the automotive supply chain service industry, the actual meaning of existence, is to create a brand car business theme in the process from sales to service, from the consciousness of integration manufacturers, dealers and customers, and then the analysis came into being about 4S vehicle maintenance industry and business management. Two main problems, 4S auto repair industry management to build service concept China coordinate system as the automobile industry in China since the introduction of the 4S shop, after 99 years of rapid development, by the end of 2014 has reached 24318. With the continuous development of automobile production and marketing services integration process
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