Opening up a new era of Internet News Supervision — an interpretation of the provisions on the administration of Internet news information services

作者:宁宣凤 吴涵 杨楠
2017年5月2日,国家互联网信息办公室(“国家网信办”)发布了《互联网新闻信息服务管理规定》[1](“《规定》”)。如下文所述,相较于国务院新闻办公室(“国新办”)和前信息产业部于2005年联发的旧版《规定》(“2005规定”),此次的新规着眼于近十多年间互联网业态的高速发展,特别是近年来网络自媒体的广泛普及及其传播手段的多样化,确立了一系列崭新的监管思路和进路,从而为我国互联网新闻的监管开启一个新时代。
制定背景:全面落实国家网信办对互联网新闻的监管
在《规定》出台前,我国专门监管“互联网新闻信息服务”的法规是2005规定,彼时这一监管权限尚在国新办手中。2014年8月26日,国务院印发《国务院关于授权国家互联网信息办公室负责互联网信息内容管理工作的通知》(国发〔2014〕33号),正式将全国“互联网信息内容”的监管权限全面授权给当时重新组建的国家网信办。据此,国家网信办于2015年4月29日发布《关于变更互联网新闻信息服务单位审批备案和外国机构在中国境内提供金融信息服务业务审批实施机关的通知》,正式明确了其审批互联网新闻信息服务单位的职能。因此,《规定》的出台标志着国家网信办对互联网新闻信息服务所享有的监管权限的全面落地,也理顺了国务院的上级授权与国家网信办的下级监管职能间的关系,而不再使国家网信办处于“有权”却“无据”的境地[2]。
而另一方面,作为行将实施的《网络安全法》(“《网安法》”)所确定的网络安全领域的核心监管部门,国家网信办在《规定》中不仅将《网安法》明确列为立法依据之一,而且将《网安法》下的信息安全保护、用户实名制等要求有机融入《规定》对互联网新闻信息服务的监管,凸显了在全新的自媒体态势下,对于互联网新闻除业务监管和舆论监管以外的第三重重要监管维度即“网络安全监管”,从而使《规定》直接成为《网安法》的重要配套措施之一。
监管进路转变:变“主体设立监管”为“服务许可监管”
从2005规定到《规定》,互联网技术的快速发展和网络使用的普及彻底改变了互联网新闻的业态,即一方面,从原有的某些特定的掌握新闻信息资源的互联网新闻发布单位,大大扩展至人人都可制造时事评论类新闻信息的“自媒体生态圈”;另一方面,如下表所示,“互联网新闻信息服务”本身的内容也随技术发展而发生了很大变化,原有的某些服务类型(如时政类电子公告服务)甚至已几近消失,而代之以公众号、微博、网络直播等现已十分普遍的类型:
2005规定

2016年国家网络安全宣传周优秀口号标语

《规定》

维护新金融安全,唐小僧坚持规范运营

本规定所称互联网新闻信息服务,包括通过互联网登载新闻信息、提供时政类电子公告服务和向公众发送时政类通讯信息。(第二条)
通过互联网站、应用程序、论坛、博客、微博客、公众账号、即时通信工具、网络直播等形式向社会公众提供互联网新闻信息服务,……包括互联网新闻信息采编发布服务、转载服务、传播平台服务。(第五条)
正因如此,当前对互联网新闻的监管必须反映并因应这一全新态势。为此,《规定》不再因循2005规定所采用的以“新闻单位”和“非新闻单位”之分,对提供互联网新闻信息服务的“单位”的“设立”进行分类审批或备案制监管的思路;而是改之以对“互联网新闻信息采编发布服务、转载服务、传播平台服务”这三大服务类型进行许可式监管,发以《互联网新闻信息服务许可证》,并通过设定《互联网新闻信息服务许可证》有效期和申请续办的程序加强持续监管。在这一新的监管模式下,除了对其中的特定服务类型(采编发布服务)设定额外的更严格的准入条件[3]之外,不论申请者是否为新闻单位,其所面临的申请条件[4]和材料要求[5]都是一致的。由此可见,《规定》大大弱化了申请者的新闻单位属性,而更为强调其在人员配置、内容审核、技术保障、信息安全等服务提供方面的资质。
在这方面,前后两种不同监管模式间的后续实践衔接值得关注。例如对于诸多已从国新办处取得“网站登载新闻业务”许可证的新闻类门户网站来说,这一业务类型在《规定》下已不存在。而2005规定也未明确此前已颁发的许可证的有效期。因此,这类已持证主体是否需申领新证,目前尚不明确。此外值得注意的是,《规定》[6]完全保留了2005规定[7]对于外资进入互联网新闻信息服务的严格禁止,以及对与外资开展相关业务合作的安全评估要求。因此,外资原已面临的准入禁止并未发生任何变化。
自媒体监管:全方位确立传播平台的主体责任
《规定》的一大亮点,就是其充分注意到了近年来自媒体生态与互联网新闻的日益紧密结合,并就此确立了以下一系列有的放矢、可以实操的监管措施:
第十三条
传播平台服务提供者必须按照《网安法》第二十四条,要求用户提供真实身份信息,否则不得为其提供服务。
第十四条

信息安全仍系重中之重 未来或可决定企业生死存亡

传播平台服务提供者必须与用户签订协议;为用户开设公众号的,必须审核其账号信息、服务资质、服务范围等信息,并向所在地省级网信办分类[8]备案。
第十一、十二条
包括传播平台服务提供者在内的所有互联网新闻信息服务提供者都必须设总编辑,并由总编辑对信息内容负总责;还必须健全信息发布审核、公共信息巡查、应急处置等信息安全管理制度,以此来确保信息内容的日常合规。
第十六条
包括传播平台服务提供者在内的所有互联网新闻信息服务提供者发现违法违规内容的,都必须采取立即停止传输、消除等措施,保存有关记录并报告主管部门。
由此可见,《规定》对以自媒体形式传播的互联网新闻信息的监管,主要是着眼于传播平台的提供者,而非在其之上发布信息的一个个用户自身。这符合当前互联网服务监管的基本逻辑,即抓平台而非抓用户,透过抓平台来间接辐射平台上的用户。从以上措施可以看出,《规定》监管自媒体的核心在于“内容”,通过确立平台在注册-签协议——日常监管——事后处置这一全链条中的主体责任,确保用户及其发布在平台上的内容既要“看得见”,更要“管得着”,而不允许出现用户无从追溯、内容随意发布的互联网新闻“法外之地”。
除上述措施外,我们注意到《规定》中还有两项监管要求在事实上也可能达到监管自媒体的效果。其一是第十五条,即要求转载服务只能转载“国家规定范围内的单位发布的新闻信息”,这就堵死了借“转载服务”之名、随意传播自媒体类互联网新闻信息的可能;其二是第十七条,即要求服务提供者在“应用新技术”或“调整增设具有新闻舆论属性或社会动员能力的应用功能”的情况下,必须报网信办进行服务安全评估,这实际上是为今后在技术上出现新的传播手段所做的准备,从而使《规定》对自媒体的监管不致因为技术的发展而沦为一纸空文。
结语:“大网络监管”的概念正在浮出水面
《网安法》实施在即,其所传递出的同时兼顾“内容安全”、“信息安全”、“技术安全”等的监管思路,在《规定》中已经有了一定程度的运用和体现。就《规定》本身所监管的互联网新闻信息服务而言,这一方面要求相关服务提供者明晰并落实自己的主体责任,特别是平台提供者既要做互联网新闻信息的传播者,更要扮演好“内容防火墙”的角色;另一方面也要求用户在享受互联网带来的信息发布便利的同时,更要实名出现、谨言慎行,不触碰法律所划定的“红线”。
而《规定》所引发的一个颇值得思考的点在于,对于互联网新闻这种以多种样态,如文字、图片、音视频等呈现的信息内容,其所涉的不同领域的监管之间是否应建立起某种内生性的统一逻辑和协调机制?在这方面,我们注意到《规定》明确要求互联网新闻信息服务提供者在遵守《规定》的同时,也要符合电信(互联网信息服务)、互联网视听节目、网络出版等服务领域的监管要求[9]。这就在实际上使《网安法》所统领的“大网络监管”的概念呼之欲出,即在保持各行业主管部门监管权限的同时,将《网安法》对于“内容安全”、“信息安全”、“技术安全”等的要求以协调一致的方式渗透进各个单行法规和各行业主管部门的监管实践之中,从而使服务提供者和用户不论进入哪个具体服务领域,都可以遵行统一的行为标准,这无疑将有利于企业等市场主体在一种相对稳定和可期待的监管环境中开展网络经营活动。
[1] 请参见:http://www.cac.gov.cn/2017-05/02/c_1120902760.htm。
[2] 因此也值得注意的是,《规定》并未废止2005规定,而是规定如有不一致之处,则以《规定》为准(请参见《规定》第二十九条)。
[3] 请参见《规定》第六条第二款。《规定》第八条还特别要求,采编业务和经营业务必须分开,非公有资本不得介入采编业务。
[4] 请参见《规定》第六条。
[5] 请参见《规定》第十条。
[6] 请参见《规定》第七条。
[7] 请参见2005规定第九条。
[8] 如何分类尚有待明确。我们理解可能会基于开设公众号的用户的主体类型(个人或机构)、发布的新闻信息的种类(如时评类、突发新闻类等)等标准进行分类,对此尚有待进一步观察确认。
[9] 请参见《规定》第六、二十一、二十八条。
长按二维码向我转账
受苹果公司新规定影响,微信 iOS 版的赞赏功能被关闭,可通过二维码转账支持公众号。
微信扫一扫关注该公众号
Author: Ning Xuanfeng Wu Han Yang Nan
In May 2, 2017, the state Internet Information Office (National Network letter office) issued the Internet news information service management regulations [1] (Regulations). As described below, compared to the Information Office of the State Council (the new office) and the provisions of the Ministry of information industry in 2005 the old version of Lianfa ( 2005 provisions ), the rapid development of the new focus on the recent more than and 10 years the Internet industry, especially in recent years the diversification of the network from the media and its popularization the means of communication, to establish a series of new ideas and regulatory approach, so as to China’s Internet news supervision and open a new era.
Background: the full implementation of the National Network letter to do the supervision of Internet News
Prior to the introduction of the provisions of China’s special regulation of Internet news information services, the provisions of the regulations is 2005, then this regulatory authority is still in the hands of the new office. In August 26, 2014, the State Council issued the Notice of the State Council on the authorization of national Internet information office is responsible for Internet content management (Guo Fa 2014 No. 33), will be officially the Internet content of the regulatory authority authorized to comprehensive national network information office was re established. Accordingly, the national network information office on April 29, 2015 issued the notice the changes on the Internet news information service units and approval for foreign institutions to provide financial information services in the territory of Chinese approval authority, the official clarified the approval of Internet news information service unit functions. Therefore, the provision marks the introduction of the national network information office has on the Internet news information services regulatory authority also fully landed, straighten out the relationship between the State Department and the National Network Information Office authorized by the higher subordinate supervision functions, instead of the national network information office in the right but no the position of [2].
On the other hand, as the network security law to be implemented ( network security law ) the field of network security and the core of the regulatory authorities, the national network information office in the Regulations not only network security law clearly the basis for legislation, and the network security law under the protection of information security, the user name system requirements such as the organic integration of the provision of Internet News Information Services Supervision, highlighting the new trend in the media, the Internet news in addition to the business supervision and public opinion supervision outside the third important dimensions namely regulatory network security supervision, so that the Regulations directly as one of the important measures of network security law.
The change of the regulatory approach: the establishment of the main body of supervision as service license supervision
From the 2005 provisions of the Regulations, the popularity of the rapid development of Internet technology and Internet use has completely changed the format of Internet news, on the one hand, the publishing unit from the original master certain news information resources of Internet news, greatly extended to everyone can make comments on current affairs news information from the media ecosystem ; on the other hand, as shown in the following table, Internet news information service content itself with the development of technology and has undergone great changes, the original some type of service (such as current electronic bulletin services) and even has almost disappeared, replaced by the public number, micro-blog, etc. now very popular webcast the type of:
2005 provisions

Regulations
The term Internet news information services as mentioned in the present Provisions shall include the publication of news information through the Internet, the provision of electronic bulletin services for current affairs, and the dissemination of political communication information to the general public. (second)
Through the Internet site, applications, forums, blogs, micro blog, public accounts, instant messaging tools, network broadcast and other forms of Internet news services to the public,…… Including the Internet news information editing and publishing services, reprint services, dissemination platform services. (fifth)
For this reason, the current regulation of Internet news must reflect and respond to this new trend. To this end, the Regulations provisions of the 2005 no longer follow the news and non news unit, to provide Internet news information service unit and set up to classify the approval or filing system regulatory ideas; instead of licensing regulation of Internet news editing publishing, reprint service, communication platform service the three types of services, to Internet news information service license , and continued to do the program is continuing to strengthen supervision by setting the validity of the Internet news information service license and application. In this new mode of regulation, in addition to the specific type of service (editing service) [3] set more stringent access conditions for additional, regardless of whether the applicant for the news unit, [4] application conditions and materials which face [5] requirements are the same. Thus, the Regulations greatly weakened the applicant’s news unit attributes, but more emphasis on its staffing, content audit, technical support, information security and other services to provide qualifications.
In this regard, the follow-up practice between the two different regulatory models between the convergence of concern. For example, a number of news outlets have been obtained from the office of the new office of the website published news business license, this type of business in the Regulations does not exist. The 2005 requirement is not yet clear the validity of the license has been issued. Therefore, whether the subject has been required to apply for a new card holders, is not clear. In addition, it is worth noting that the provisions of the [6] completely retained the 2005 provisions of the [7] for foreign investment into the Internet news information services strictly prohibited, as well as foreign related business cooperation with the safety assessment requirements. Therefore, the foreign capital has been faced with the entry ban has not changed.
From media supervision: the main responsibility of establishing communication platform
The provision one of the highlights, is fully aware of the recent media and Internet news increasingly closely, and has established the following a series of targeted, practical regulatory measures:
Article thirteenth
Communication platform service providers must be in accordance with the network security law twenty-fourth, requiring users to provide true identity information, or not to provide services.
Article fourteenth
Communication platform service provider must sign an agreement with the user; for users to open a public number, must check the account information, service quality, service scope and other information, and to the provincial Office Network letter classification [8] record.
物联网、智慧家庭让人们的生产和生活越来越便利的同时,安全也越来越受到威胁。
Eleventh, article twelve
All the Internet news information service providers including communication platform providers, must have the editor in chief and the chief editor of the information content of responsibility; also must perfect the information audit, public information inspection, emergency disposal of information security management system, the daily compliance to ensure that the information content of the.
Article sixteenth
Including communication platform providers, all Internet news information service providers found illegal content, must be taken to immediately stop the transmission and elimination measures to keep the relevant records and report to the competent department.
Thus, the provisions of the dissemination of information from the media in the form of Internet news information is mainly focused on the dissemination of the platform providers, rather than on the release of information on a user’s own. This is consistent with the basic logic of the current Internet service regulation, that is, grasping the platform rather than grasping the user, through the platform to catch the user on the indirect radiation platform. As can be seen from the above measures, the Regulations is the core of supervision from the media content, through the establishment of platform in the registration agreement, the daily supervision, after the disposal of the main responsibility of this whole chain, and ensure that the user posted on the platform content to see to tube not allowed back, users have no content free release of Internet news outside the law.
In addition to the above measures, we note that the provisions of the two regulatory requirements may in fact be able to achieve regulatory effects from the media. One is fifteenth, which requires reprint service can be reproduced within the scope of the unit of news information provisions of the state, which blocked the reprint service, random spread from the media Internet news information; the second is seventeenth, which requires the service provider in the new technology application the creation of news public opinion or adjust the property or the application ability of social mobilization function, must be reported to the net in the letter to do service safety assessment, which is actually for the technology in the future emergence of new means of communication preparations, so that the Regulations of media supervision is not caused because the development of technology become a mere scrap of paper.
Conclusion: the concept of big network regulation is emerging
Security law will soon be implemented, it conveys both content and information security and security and other regulatory ideas, in the Regulations has been reflected to a certain extent and use. On the provision Internet news information service itself supervision, the demand for related service providers, Ming Xi and the main responsibility for the implementation of their own, especially communication platform providers should do Internet news information, but also to play a good firewall role; on the other hand also require users to enjoy the Internet brings the information release more convenient at the same time, to the real name, cautious, do not touch the law designated red line.
The provision a quite worth thinking caused in the news for the Internet in a variety of patterns, such as the information content of words and pictures, audio and video presentation, which involved between different areas of the supervision and management should establish unified coordination mechanism and some endogenous logic? In this regard, we note that the provision clearly requires Internet news information service provider in compliance with the Regulations at the same time, also must comply with the Telecommunications (Internet information services), Internet audio-visual program, network publishing and other services in the field of regulatory requirements [9]. This is in fact the network security law command network supervision concept, while maintaining that the Department in charge of supervision authority and the industry, the network security law for security and information security and security requirements in a coordinated way in various special regulations and various departments in charge of industry supervision practice, so that the service provider and the user whether to enter the specific service areas, can do the unified standards of behavior, which will undoubtedly help enterprises and other market players to carry out network business activities in a phase of steady and anticipated regulatory environment.
[1] see: http:\/\/www.cac.gov.cn\/2017-05\/02\/c_1120902760.htm.
Therefore, it is worth noting that the provisions of the [2] did not abolish the 2005 provisions, but that if there are inconsistencies, the Regulations shall prevail (see the provisions of the twenty-ninth).
[3] please refer to the provisions of the sixth paragraph second. The provisions of article eighth also special requirements, editing and business operations must be separated, non-public capital shall not participate in the acquisition business.
[4] please refer to the provisions of article sixth.
[5] please refer to the provisions of article tenth.
[6] please refer to the provisions of article seventh.
[7] please refer to the 2005 clause of article ninth.
[8] how to classify yet to be clear. We may understand the main open public number of users based on the type (individual or organization), types of news release information (such as commentary, news etc.) classification standard, it still needs further observation to confirm.
网络安全公益短片中间人攻击防范
[9] please refer to the Regulations sixth, twenty-one, twenty-eight.
Long by two-dimensional code to me transfer
Affected by the new regulations of Apple Corp, WeChat iOS version of the feature is closed, can be transferred through the two-dimensional code to support public numbers.
WeChat sweep attention to the public number

信息安全专家不敢用网银,安全专家太过小心谨慎,自己没有被黑的经历,如何来指导他人防黑?在不敢用网银的安全专家不会爆出网银安全事件,就如同实战经验缺乏的信心不足的专家们常讲的,断了电的放在保险柜里的服务器才是绝对安全的。

猜您喜欢

2016中铁快运股份有限公司接收大学毕业生招聘51人公告(二)
一体化“安全前线”产品“信息安全意识包厢”
职业健康、环境保护、安全生产
金牌绿叶曾守明演出中途暴毙最后画面曝光
MEINSUPERJOB SNOWALPS
网络安全公益短片防范移动僵尸网络