A better guide to cloud Disaster Recovery Planning

现如今,灾难恢复即服务已然正在迅速成为企业利用云服务来解决灾难恢复挑战的一种理想的方式。
对于存储专业人员来说,灾难恢复仍然是一项持续性的挑战。因为与许多其他IT领域不同,近年来,灾难恢复的环境正在变得越来越复杂,而且难以解决。

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首先,对于“灾难”的定义已经扩大到几乎任何服务中断领域。其次是,造成灾难的原因更多了。我们大家通常听到的都是自然灾害(如地震、洪水、飓风),但还应该人造灾难、如网络攻击、敲诈勒索软件、用户意外的操作错误或企业遭受破坏。第三,在灾难发生时我们所需要考虑的数据量也在呈指数级增长。第四,用户对快速恢复的期望大大增强。今天,用户期望他们的关键应用程序几乎没有中断。
而与此同时,作为这些困难挑战的大背景,大多数企业组织的灾难恢复预算增长则仍然处于停滞状况。因此,许多企业,无论是中小企业还是大型企业纷纷都在寻求他们的云灾难恢复计划,以消除上述这些问题,同时减少灾难恢复的总体支出。
在云中备份、归档和灾难恢复
了解云是一种服务提供模式(请参阅下文《什么是云》)有助于确定哪些数据保护流程和案例是好的,而哪些则是不那么好的。大多数数据保护流程有三大基本组件:备份、归档和恢复。
备份是复制数据,其目的是在应对一旦发生故障或数据丢失的情况下,使该数据有一个可用于恢复的版本。大多数企业组织会将数据备份保留有限的时间期限(通常典型的是三到七年),所以利用云备份意味着至少在一段时间内需要每天租用存储备份容量能力。根据您企业所需要存储的数据量,这一举措可能会,也可能不会如您企业自己存储更具成本效益。
归档是数据的长期保留。这应该是存储数据的最终副本的地方——理想的情况下,仅限于在两个单独位置对每个数据的两种副本,最好是以两种不同的格式进行归档。企业组织的归档策略越强大,备份数据的保护范围就越小,恢复数据所需的时间也就越长。大多数企业组织需要保存至少七年的归档数据,有时可能会更长。对于大多数企业组织来说,租用存储空间长达几十年并不具有成本效益,所以云服务可能并不是归档数据的合适的目的地。
恢复,特别是灾难恢复,几乎总是需要最新的数据副本。如果可能的话,在“最近”的时间框架之外的任何恢复都应该来自一份归档。云服务是灾难恢复的理想位置,因为只有最新的数据副本必须被存储在那里,大多数云服务(如果不是全部的话)供应商均允许您企业在发生灾难时使用其计算资源。这节省了在远程灾难恢复站点维护您企业自己的服务器和存储硬件的成本,而不会增加备份磁盘容量成本。因此,基于云的灾难恢复或灾难恢复即服务(DRaaS)已经迅速成为解决企业灾难恢复难题的理想方式。
什么是云服务?
首先,让我们先来清楚一点,云服务并不是能够解决所有IT问题的一味灵丹妙药。这是一处企业私有数据中心必须与私有数据中心物理法则同样严肃对待的一场“战役”。其优势在于,云服务提供商是一家整体型的企业组织,该组织专注于提供IT服务,而大部分云服务供应商都具备顶尖的数据中心设计。
它们还具有规模化经济的优势,这意味着采购大量的IT产品绝对能够为云服务提供商们带来显著的成本优势。将这些经济规模化优势与流程和自动化方面的大量投资相结合,通常会使得您企业的运营成本在每个单位的基础上要低得多。
请记住,云服务主要是一种IT交付模式。企业客户无需预先购买IT产品和服务,而是定期租用这些IT产品和服务。IT服务的租赁性质意味着云服务对于临时性的使用非常有吸引力,对于更多的永久性的使用案例而言,其吸引力则较小。
下面,就让我们来看看您企业应该采取哪些步骤,以及为企业组织开发最有效的云灾难恢复计划时所应该考虑的相关事项吧。
步骤1:将数据迁移到云中
构建云灾难恢复计划的第一步是将数据交付给您企业的云服务提供商,当然还要记住通过控制具体存储多少数据来优化成本——最好是仅存储最新的副本。而且,鉴于云数据保护选项众多,通常可以分为两类:备份数据的产品和复制数据的产品。它们之间的区别在于数据的存储方式。
大多数云备份产品以专有的备份格式存储数据。在发生灾难的情况下,数据必须被提取,并由虚拟机有企业客户可以访问的格式转移到企业客户处。大多数云备份产品利用企业内部部署的设备首先捕获所有备份,然后将更改的数据复制到云服务。几乎所有的复制产品都将数据复制到云端,但是相比之下,以原始文件系统格式存储的数据,在主站点发生故障时可以立即访问。企业客户甚至可以选择将这些数据存储在高性能云存储上,使“返回操作”更快。
鉴于备份或复制存在初始数据方面的挑战。传输创建备份或复制软件需要比较的云基准的数据可能需要花费几个小时,几天甚至几周的时间。为了加快这一过程,一些云服务供应商向企业客户提供了坚固耐用的高容量NAS。将基础数据集复制到NAS上,然后将NAS发回。理想的情况下,更多的云服务提供商将使用磁带,这更容易运输,并且更具成本效益。一旦数据被存储在云中,数据的每日更新通常会很容易,而诸如数据压缩、重复数据删除和更改的块复制这样的技术能够显著减少必须通过网络迁移的数据量。
将数据移动到云中的第三种方法是在云中运行生产数据。这涉及到使用企业内部部署的缓存,以便本地应用程序不会遇到延迟或将整个工作负载转移到云本身。虽然将主存储和二级存储放在云中的运营成本可能会超过成本本身,但企业客户必须将所有数据迁移到云中才能更有效。而且,虽然这种方法也可以避免将数据持续转移到云中,但您企业必须确保云服务供应商能够为其存储的数据提供可接受的弹性。
步骤2:在云中执行灾难恢复
每位IT专业人士在其职业生涯中至少都会发生一次灾难。事实上,自从“灾难”的这一定义已经从数据中心数据被擦除扩展到重要应用程序变得不可用以来,今天的“灾难”情况更有可能发生。如果灾难是孤立的,那么这意味着其只会影响单一一个工作负载,那么坦率地说,将采用云计算,并将数据传输到云服务提供商来进行故障恢复是不必要的。通常情况下,一家企业组织更适合在企业内部进行恢复。一些云备份产品可以利用企业本地数据中心的设备来托管故障应用程序的数据,在某些情况下成为驱动该应用程序的虚拟机版本所需的计算机。
基于复制的DRaaS产品应该被设置为除云之外还具有本地存储目标。这样,企业客户还可以选择在本地或云中恢复。
对于更广泛的灾难,如数据中心不可用时,需要对云进行真正的故障切换。这里,灾难发生后的第一步是启动高优先级应用程序操作所需的所有服务,如DNS和目录服务,以及组成该应用程序的所有服务器。最后,调整网络配置,以便登录的用户可以无缝访问现在的云托管应用程序。

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显然,在实际需要之前,对灾难恢复进程的测试对于确保所有这些步骤的奏效都起着至关重要的作用,特别是网络更改。将最终用户条件纳入变更也很重要。他们可能不会在中央办公室,也可能在咖啡店或家中通过虚拟专用网络连接登录。
此过程与将所有数据存储在云中,但仍将计算保管在企业内部的企业是如此的相似。新的网络路由问题是一样的,但是由于数据已经在云中,所以您企业只需要启动与数据一起开发的应用程序即可启动和运行。
步骤3:返回
在某些时候,您企业需要离开云服务并返回正常的内部部署操作。云端口是利用云灾难恢复计划的更困难的方面之一,IT用于推动数据到云中的每日传输的所有技术在此处都将不会奏效,因为没有可用于比较的基准。
在大多数情况下,您企业可以从云中还原数据,尽管很缓慢,而提供商则继续托管您的应用程序。数据完成传输后,执行快速数据同步,然后将操作切换回企业的主数据中心。根据所需要传输的数据量和可用带宽,此传输可能需要几天甚至几周的时间,而您的企业组织需要支付在云中使用的计算机的附加费用。
DRaaS提供商应该能够提供将数据直接传送到企业客户的新数据中心的功能。如前所述,这可以通过NAS或磁带来实现。这将允许在受影响的应用程序仍然在提供商的云中运行的情况下创建基准副本。
返回操作这一例子还说明了“数据迁移到云中”的另一大优势。由于无需迁移数据,您可以借助本地缓存数据在新的数据中心启动应用程序,由此使得系统可以开始访问云中的数据。只有活跃的数据必须在企业内部部署环境复制。
结论
在存储方面,云服务对于灾难恢复而言最有价值和最具成本效益的。这是因为灾难恢复存储容量低于其他数据保护产品,并且很少读取,而云提供对计算机的访问,可以利用数据在灾难发生时快速重新启动任务关键型应用程序。云灾难恢复计划也消除了企业组织灾难恢复策略的大量成本,因为您企业只需在测试灾难恢复计划或发生实际灾难时支付计算资源即可。
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Today, disaster recovery is already rapidly becoming an ideal way for companies to use cloud services to address the challenges of disaster recovery.
Disaster recovery remains a continuing challenge for storage professionals. Unlike many other IT areas, in recent years, the environment for disaster recovery is becoming more and more complex and difficult to solve.
First, the definition of disaster has been extended to almost any field of service interruption. Second, there are more reasons for the disaster. We all hear natural disasters (such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes), but should also be man-made disasters, such as cyber attacks, extortion software, unexpected user error or damage to enterprises. Third, the amount of data we need to consider in the event of a disaster is growing exponentially. Fourth, the user’s expectations of rapid recovery greatly enhanced. Today, users expect their critical applications to be virtually uninterrupted.
At the same time, as the background of these challenges, most of the organization’s disaster recovery budget growth is still stagnant. As a result, many companies, both small and medium enterprises or large enterprises have been seeking their cloud disaster recovery plan to eliminate these problems, while reducing the overall cost of disaster recovery.
Backup, archive and disaster recovery in the cloud
Understanding the cloud is a service delivery model (see below what is cloud) helps to determine which data protection processes and cases are good and which are not so good. Most data protection processes have three basic components: backup, archiving, and recovery.
A backup is a copy of the data, the purpose is to respond to the event of a failure or data loss, so that the data can be used to restore a version. Most organizations will retain limited data backup time period (typically is three to seven years), so the use of cloud backup means at least a period of time to the daily rental storage backup capacity. Depending on the amount of data you need to store, this move may or may not be as cost-effective as your own store.
Archiving is the long-term retention of data. This should be the place where the final copy of the data is stored – ideally, it is limited to two copies of each data in two separate locations, preferably in a file of two different formats. The more powerful the archiving strategy is, the smaller the range of backup data protection and the longer the time required to recover the data. Most organizations need to save at least seven years of archived data, and sometimes may be longer. For most organizations, renting storage space for decades is not cost effective, so cloud services may not be the appropriate destination for archiving data.
Recovery, especially disaster recovery, almost always requires the latest copy of the data. If possible, any recovery outside the recent time frame should come from an archive. Cloud service is an ideal location for disaster recovery, because only the latest copy of the data must be stored in the cloud service there, most (if not all) suppliers allows you to businesses to use its computing resources in the event of a disaster. This saves the cost of maintaining your own servers and storage hardware at remote disaster recovery sites without increasing the cost of backup disk capacity. Therefore, cloud based disaster recovery or disaster recovery service (DRaaS) has become an ideal way to solve the problem of disaster recovery.
What is cloud service?
First, let’s make it clear that cloud services are not a panacea for all IT problems. This is a private enterprise data center must be the same as the private data center physical law as a serious battle. The advantage is that the cloud service provider is an integrated enterprise organization, the organization focused on providing IT services, while most cloud service providers have the top data center design.
They also have the advantages of economies of scale, which means that the purchase of a large number of IT products can definitely bring significant cost advantages for cloud service providers. The combination of these economies of scale and a large amount of investment in processes and automation will often make your business operating costs much lower per unit.
Keep in mind that cloud services are primarily a IT delivery model. Enterprise customers do not need to buy IT products and services in advance, but regularly hire these IT products and services. The leasing nature of IT services means that cloud services are very attractive for temporary use, and are less attractive for more permanent use cases.
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Now, let’s take a look at what steps you should take and what you should consider when developing the most effective cloud disaster recovery plan for your organization.
Step 1: move data to the cloud
The first step in building a cloud disaster recovery plan is to deliver data to your enterprise cloud service provider, of course, remember that by controlling the number of data to optimize the specific storage cost is best stored only the latest copy. Moreover, given the large number of cloud data protection options, can be divided into two categories: backup data products and copy data products. The difference between them is the way data is stored.
Most cloud backup products store data in a proprietary backup format. In the event of a disaster, the data must be extracted and transferred from the virtual machine to the enterprise customer. Most cloud backup products take advantage of all the devices deployed in the enterprise to capture all the backup, and then copy the data to the cloud. Almost all copies of the data are copied to the cloud, but by contrast, the data stored in the original file system format, can be accessed at the primary site failure. Enterprise customers can even choose to store these data in high-performance cloud storage, so that the return operation faster.
In view of the challenges of initial data in backup or replication. The creation of a backup or copy of the software needed to compare the data to the cloud benchmark may take hours, days or even weeks. In order to speed up the process, some cloud service providers to corporate customers to provide a durable high capacity NAS. Copy the underlying data set to NAS, and then send NAS back. Ideally, more cloud service providers will use tape, which is easier to transport and more cost effective. Once the data is stored in the cloud, daily updated data is usually very easy to copy, such as block of data compression, data deduplication and change of such technology can significantly reduce the amount of data transfer through the network must.
The third way to move data into the cloud is to run production data in the cloud. This involves the use of caching within an enterprise so that local applications do not encounter delays or transfer the entire workload to the cloud itself. Although the main storage and two storage in the cloud may be more than the operating costs of the cost itself, but the enterprise customers must move all the data to the cloud in order to be more effective. Moreover, although this approach can also avoid the continuous transfer of data to the cloud, but your business must ensure that cloud service providers can provide an acceptable flexibility for their stored data.
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Step 2: perform disaster recovery in the cloud
Every IT professional has at least one disaster in his career. In fact, since the definition of disaster has been extended from data center data to an important application becomes unavailable, today’s disaster situation is more likely to occur. If the disaster is isolated, then this means that it will only affect a single work load, so frankly, the use of cloud computing, and transmits the data to the cloud service provider to recovery is not necessary. Under normal circumstances, a business organization is more suitable for recovery within the enterprise. Some cloud backup products can use the device of the enterprise local data center to manage the data of the fault application, and in some cases become the computer needed to drive the virtual version of the application.
Replication based DRaaS products should be set to have local storage targets except for the cloud. In this way, enterprise customers can also choose to restore in the local or cloud.

For a wide range of disasters, such as the data center is not available, the need for a real cloud failover. Here, the first step after a disaster is to start all the services required for high priority application operations, such as DNS and directory services, and all the servers that make up the application. Finally, the network configuration is adjusted so that the logged in user can seamlessly access the current cloud hosting application.
It is clear that the test of the disaster recovery process is essential to ensure that all of these steps are effective, especially when the network changes. It is also important to include the end user requirements. They may not be in the central office, may also be in a coffee shop or home through a virtual private network connection login.
This process is similar to all the data stored in the cloud, but will still be calculated to keep the enterprise within the enterprise. The new network routing problem is the same, but because the data is already in the cloud, so you only need to start the application with the development of data to start and run.
Step 3: Return
At some point, your business needs to leave the cloud service and return to normal deployment operations. The cloud port is one of the more difficult aspects of the use of the cloud disaster recovery plan, and all of the technologies that IT uses to push the data to the cloud for daily transmission will not work here, since there is no basis for comparison.
In most cases, you can restore data from the cloud, albeit slowly, while the provider continues to host your application. After the data has been transmitted, a fast data synchronization is performed, and then the operation is switched back to the main data center of the enterprise. Depending on the amount of data you need to transmit and the available bandwidth, this transfer may take days or even weeks, and your organization needs to pay for the additional costs of using computers in the cloud.
The DRaaS provider should be able to provide the functionality of the new data center that delivers the data directly to the enterprise customer. As mentioned earlier, this can be achieved by NAS or tape. This will allow the creation of a reference copy in the case where the affected application is still running in the provider’s cloud.
This example also shows another big advantage of data migration to the cloud. Since you do not need to migrate data, you can use the local cache data to start the application in the new data center, so that the system can begin to access the data in the cloud. Only active data must be replicated within the enterprise environment.
conclusion
In terms of storage, cloud services are the most valuable and cost-effective for disaster recovery. This is because the disaster recovery storage capacity is lower than that of other data protection products, and rarely read, and the cloud provides access to a computer, in the event of a disaster can quickly restart mission critical applications using the data. The cloud disaster recovery plan also eliminates the cost of disaster recovery strategies for enterprise organizations, because you only need to pay for the calculation of the disaster recovery plan or when the actual disaster occurs.

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